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MILANO Un Giro mai visto, partenza da Gerusalemme, arrivo a Roma, con una sorpresa: Chris Froome ci sar Non l assoluto, ma la prima volta da protagonista vero, da superfavorito. “Una sfida che voglio affrontare, fare quel che la gente non crede possibile oggi”. Ossia, vincere Giro e Tour nello stesso anno, non accade dal 1998, e tre grandi corse a tappe di seguito, se si somma il prossimo Giro a Tour e Vuelta 2017. Solo Merckx (Giro e Tour pi Vuelta e Giro e Hinault (Giro e Tour 82, Vuelta 83) sono riusciti in simile impresa. Cima Coppi molto bassa, ai 2178 del Colle delle Finestre, nella 19ma tappa). Sette le tappe per velocisti, due le crono individuali, per complessivi 44,2 km, quasi 30 meno del 2017. Anche per questo Dumoulin, il campione uscente, potrebbe marcare visita. Incertissima la presenza di Nibali, certa quella di Fabio Aru, ma quello delle presenze e delle assenze, un balletto che si far pi avanti.

Ciclismo, la presentazione del Giro d’Italia 2018

Tappe in Israele semplici (una crono di 9,7 km pi due arrivi veloci a Tel Aviv e Eilat), poi tripletta siciliana, la risalita dalla Calabria toccando poi Campania e Abruzzo. Pellegrinaggi, numerosi, in luoghi di tragedie italiane: la valle del Belice, in Sicilia, poi Rigopiano, Colfiorito, l a Michele Scarponi col passaggio dalla nat Filottrano. La crono pi importante, quella tra Trento e Rovereto,
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misura 34,5 km. Non un Giro addomesticato per Froome, tuttavia gli scalatori dovranno inventarsi qualcosa di speciale per batterlo.

Tuttavia Froome non dimentichi un paio di dettagli: al Giro 2013 inizi la parabola discendente dell capitano Wiggins, che fu respinto dalle strade italiane nella stagione successiva al suo trionfo al Tour. E poi la maledizione di Sky, sempre perfetta al Tour, mai competitiva al Giro, dove ha colto un solo podio finale, con Uran, e una moltitudine di delusioni (Wiggins, Porte, Landa e Thomas, per motivi diversi). L a Roma, con tappa in circuito, non a cronometro, non ha ancora un traguardo finale. Frongia: “Stiamo lavorando a diverse ipotesi, sar comunque un viaggio nel centro storico, con 10 passaggi”. Probabile comunque la linea finale su via della Conciliazione. L arrivo di tappa a Roma datato 2009, l dell di Froome al Giro. Il britannico torn nel 2010, ma fu espulso dalla corsa per traino sul Mortirolo. Un buon motivo, adesso che diventato Vroome, per rimettere un numero e lottare per l grande giro che gli manca. A quel punto entrerebbe nel gruppo ristrettissimo (ora sono 6) dei portatori della Tripla Corona. Una vantaggio per Froome la settimana di riposo in pi tra la fine del Giro (27 maggio) e la partenza del Tour (7 luglio).

NIBALI “Il Tour sicuramente non da escludere, il problema anche cercare di fare la combinazione Giro Tour e dover tralasciare la Vuelta. Diventa complicato fare questa scelta. Giro e Tour hanno due percorsi che si possono associare durante la stagione per diventa molto difficile, e io ho trovato anche un po di difficolt nell di due grandi corse a tappe con poca distanza, anche se quest c una settimana in pi di respiro”. Lo ha detto Vincenzo Nibali a margine della presentazione del Giro d in merito alla possibilit di correre sia il Tour de France che la Corsa rosa. “E un Giro molto interessante, ci sono tappe molto particolari, dure e molto impegnative come lo Zoncolan e altre adatte a fondisti. Bisogna analizzare tutte le tappe nel dettaglio”, ha aggiunto il corridore siciliano ammettendo che a proposito della propria partecipazione “le riserve non sono ancora state sciolte, cercheremo di arrivare in condizione ha aggiunto . Un programma ben definito non c la scelta non ricade soltanto su di me ma su tutto il team. Quanto incider la decisione di Froome? Relativamente”. La Corsa rosa onorer la memoria di Michele Scarponi transitando nella sua Filottaro. “Sar qualcosa di fantastico, purtroppo rimane il ricordo ha proseguito . Michele manca a tutti, stato giusto renderli onore al Giro con una tappa dedicata tutta a lui”. Sui punti in cui si potr decidere il Giro, Nibali ha evidenziato che “l settimana sar quella pi impegnativa, nella prima bisogna essere subito pronti, Montevergine una salita impegnativa con tornanti stretti anche se l volta siamo arrivati in una decina di corridori. Non fa una grandissima selezione, molto di pi lo Zoncolan e lo Jafferau. Preoccupazione per la partenza in Israele? Non ci ho pensato,
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penso che gli organizzatori anche con le varie delegazioni e i vari presidi stanno sicuramente cercando di rendere il tutto molto sicuro ed efficace”

peuterey spaccio bologna tra cui l’italiano Roberto Di Matteo

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Tre giornalisti, tra cui un cittadino italiano, Roberto Di Matteo, sono stati arrestati in Venezuela mentre stavano conducendo un’inchiesta nel carcere di Tocoron, nello Stato di Aragua. Gli altri due arrestati sono il venezuelano Jesus Medina e il ticinese Filippo Rossi. Il sito venezuelano El Nacional riferisce che la notizia è stata diffusa dall’Unione Nazionale dei Lavoratori della Stampa e dall’organizzazione Espacio Publico.

“Jesus Medina, Roberto Di Matteo e Filippo Rossi sarebbero accusati di aver fatto entrare attrezzature audiovisive senza autorizzazione”, ha fatto sapere il sindacato su Twitter,
peuterey spaccio bologna tra cui l'italiano Roberto Di Matteo
senza fornire ulteriori dettagli sulle testate per cui lavorano i giornalisti. Il sindacato venezuelano ha invitato le autorità a fornire “informazioni reali” sui tre cronisti, che non hanno fatto più sapere nulla dopo essere stati fermati venerdì pomeriggio.

La Farnesina al lavoro L’ambasciata d’Italia a Caracas, in stretto raccordo con la Farnesina, segue fin dal primo momento il caso del fermo del connazionale Roberto Di Matteo. In stretto contatto con le autorità locali, si precisa, la rappresentanza diplomatica italiana si è prontamente attivata per prestare al connazionale tutta l’assistenza necessaria.

In aumento gli arresti di giornalisti in Venezuela Il carcere di Tocoron è tristemente noto in Venezuela per i suoi ripetuti episodi di violenza e diversi altri crimini ed il governo non è ancora riuscito a pacificare. La Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa ha stimato che l’anno scorso le intimidazioni e gli arresti arbitrari contro i giornalisti sono aumentati. In Venezuela, il Colegio Nacional de Periodistas ha denunciato un’ondata di attacchi contro i giornalisti in particolare mentre coprivano le proteste dell’opposizione anti chavista,
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tra aprile e luglio.

catalogo peuterey towards a sustainable approach to management in the glocal context

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Il saggio ripercorre le principali tappe del dibattito internazionale che negli ultimi anni ha condotto ad una nozione di cultural heritage aperta e dinamica, volta al superamento del dualismo tra materiale e immateriale e attenta al ruolo delle comunità locali nei processi di riconoscimento, tutela e valorizzazione del patrimonio stesso. Dopo aver preso in esame l’apporto degli studi giuridici, con specifico riferimento al contesto italiano, si analizza il contributo delle scienze sociali, soprattutto manageriali, particolarmente sensibili al tema della sostenibilità delle politiche e delle azioni finalizzate alla valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale materiale e immateriale anche attraverso l’applicazione di strumenti partecipativi. In quest’ottica, riconoscendo un ruolo centrale alla governance e alla collaborazione tra attori pubblici e privati che operano in un medesimo contesto, si porta infine l’attenzione sugli ecomusei, come caso esemplare dell'”immateriale che vive nella materialità”, evidenziando i nodi problematici che emergono dall’analisi della realtà italiana e suggerendo possibili linee di ricerca future.

The paper traces the main steps of the international debate that during the last years lead to an open and dynamic notion of cultural heritage, overcoming the dualism between tangible and intangible and considering the role of local communities in the processes of heritage recognition, safeguarding and enhancement. After examining the contribution of legal studies, above all in Italy, the approach of social sciences is analysed, focusing on management. These studies have explored the sustainability of policies and actions towards tangible and intangible cultural heritage enhancement, also through the application of participatory tools. In this perspective, governance and collaboration among different actors working in the same context gain a central role. Finally, the attention is focused on eco museums as an exemplar case of “intangible that lives in tangible”, highlighting some crucial issues emerging from the analysis of the Italian context and suggesting possible future research lines.

Aikawa Faure N. (2009), From the Proclamation of Masterpieces to the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, in Smith, Akagawa 2009, pp. (2013), Mettere in valore una comunità in “questua”. Patrimonio immateriale e cortocircuiti glocali, Voci. Annuale di Scienze Umane, X, pp. 21 35.

Barbati C., Cammelli M., Sciullo G., a cura di (2011), Diritto e gestione dei beni culturali, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Barrios Iiguez E. (2002), Del folklore a la identidad. La cultura tradicional y popular: proteccin del patrimonio cultural intangible, Oruro: edicion del autor.

Bartolini A. (2014), L’immaterialità dei beni culturali, Aedon. Rivista di arti e diritto on line, n. 1, gennaio aprile. Beni Culturali nel Bilancio Sociale di Impresa (2005), Pisa: Associazione Amici della Scuola Normale Superiore.

Bindi L., a cura di (2013a), Alla fi era delle identità. Patrimoni culturali, turismo, mercati, Voci. Annuale di Scienze umane, X.

Bindi L. (2013b), Il futuro del passato. Il valore dei beni immateriali tra turismo e mercato della cultura, Voci. Annuale di Scienze Umane, X, pp. 36 48.

Black G. (2012), Transforming Museums in the Twenty fi rst Century, Abingdon: Routledge.

Blake J. (2009), UNESCO’s 2003 Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage: the implication of community involvement in ‘safeguarding’, in Smith, Akagawa 2009, pp. 45 73.

Bortolotto C., a cura di (2008a), Il patrimonio immateriale secondo l’UNESCO: analisi e prospettive, Roma: Istituto Poligrafi co e Zecca dello Stato Libreria dello Stato.

Bortolotto C. (2008b), Introduzione. Il processo di definizione del concetto di “patrimonio culturale immateriale”. Elementi per una riflessione, in Bortolotto 2008a, pp. 7 48.

Bortolotto C. (2012), Gli inventari del patrimonio culturale intangibile quale “partecipazione” per quali “comunità”?, in Scovazzi et al. 2012, pp. 75 91. (2006), I beni culturali demoetnoantropologici, Roma: Carocci.

Caforio G. (2014), La tutela delle tipicità appartenenti alla pubblica amministrazione, Aedon. Rivista di arti e diritto on line, n. 1, gennaioaprile.

Calcagno M. (2012), Safeguarding the intangibles through innovation, in Scovazzi et al. 2012, pp. 301 317.

Casini L. (2014), “Noli me tangere”: i beni culturali tra materialità e immaterialità, Aedon. Rivista di arti e diritto on line, n. 1, gennaio aprile.

Castilla A. (2010), El museo en escena: poltica y cultura en América Latina, Buenos Aires: Paids, Fundacin TyPA.

Cattaneo M. (2013), Brigantaggio e patrimonio culturale. Una rifl essione su alcune recenti tendenze museali e turistiche, Il capitale culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage, n. 8, pp. 159 173.

Cavicchi A., Santini C., Belletti E. (2013), Preserving the authenticity of food and wine festivals: the case of Italy, Il capitale culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage, n. 8, pp. 251 271.

Chhabra D., Healy R. Sills E. (2003), Staged Authenticity and Heritage Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 30, n. 3, pp. 702 719.

Chhabra D. (2012), Authenticity of the Objectively Authentic, Annals of Tourism Research, 39, n. 1, pp. 499 502.

Clemente P., Mugnaini F. (2001), Oltre il folklore. Tradizioni popolari e antropologia nella società contemporanea, Roma: Carocci.

Creaco S. (2014), Note sull’economia e la fi nanza degli ecomusei, in Reina 2014a, pp. 101 114.

De Varine H. (2005), Le radici del futuro. Il patrimonio culturale al servizio dello sviluppo locale, Bolgona: Clueb.
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Faisalabad (Agencia Fides) “Recibo esta llamada al servicio como Obispo de la Dicesis de Islamabad Rawalpindi con plena fe, como la voluntad de Dios que se manifiesta a m a través del Jefe Supremo de la Iglesia. Soy consciente de la tarea y los desafos que me esperan. Pero confiando en el Seor, tengo fe porque como dice San Pablo, todo lo puedo en aquel que me conforta”: es lo que dice en una nota enviada a la Agencia Fides, Mons. Joseph Arshad, nombrado arzobispo de la dicesis de Islamabad Rawalpindi, en vsperas de la ceremonia de toma de posesin de la dicesis, que se llevar a cabo en una solemne celebracin eucarstica el prximo 10 de febrero en la Catedral de Rawalpindi.

“Me comprometo a dedicar todo mi tiempo y energa para el bien de la dicesis de Islamabad Rawalpindi, que tiene una rica y floreciente historia de fe y cultura”, dice el Arzobispo.

“Con humildad, sentimientos de respeto y veneracin profunda, expreso mi ms profundo agradecimiento al Papa Francisco por la preocupacin que muestra por todas las Iglesias, y reconozco con gratitud la confianza que me demuestra al promoverme como Arzobispo y confiarme el cargo de la oficina episcopal de la dicesis de Islamabad Rawalpindi, para el cuidado pastoral del pueblo de Dios”, expresa Mons. Arshad.

“La Iglesia en Pakistn observa el Arzobispo bajo la gua del Sucesor de San Pedro, est siempre unida a la Iglesia universal y expresa su profundo afecto y amor por el Papa Francisco, orando constantemente por su delicada misin como Obispo de Roma y Pastor de la Iglesia universal”.

“En el espritu de servicio, mientras me preparo para asumir el nuevo cargo pastoral de la dicesis de Islamabad Rawalpindi, junto con la responsabilidad de servir a la dicesis de Faisalabad como administrador apostlico hasta el nombramiento de un nuevo obispo, deseo reconocer y agradecer el trabajo que han realizado mis predecesores de ambas dicesis”, seala el arzobispo, recordando: “el apoyo y el amor del clero, de los religiosos, de los catequistas y los fieles”.

Al agradecer a todos aquellos que han estado junto a él, el Arzobispo pide: “Sigan rezando por m para que el Dios Todopoderoso pueda fortalecerme y darme la sabidura necesaria para servir a la Iglesia bajo la mirada de Jesucristo crucificado, para la salvacin de las almas que se les ha confiado. En este perodo de mi vida, cuento con la cercana fraternal de mis hermanos obispos, la colaboracin del clero, la colaboracin de las comunidades religiosas femeninas y masculinas, los catequistas y la oracin de todos los fieles”.

Mons. Arshad invita a todos a continuar en el camino de la unidad “para dedicarnos juntos, con renovado compromiso y entusiasmo, a resolver las grandes tareas que nos esperan en Pakistn: acogemos el desafo del anuncio del Evangelio, la formacin en la fe de los jvenes, la renovacin de la vida eclesial y el compromiso por el bien de nuestra sociedad”.

Por ltimo, el arzobispo se encomienda a la intercesin de la Santsima Virgen Mara, para que “proteja a todos los fieles y conceda abundantes bendiciones a todo el amado pas”. (PA) (Agencia Fides 1/2/2018).
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borse peuterey Their Colonial Roots and the Legacy of their Independence Movements

goose down peuterey Their Colonial Roots and the Legacy of their Independence Movements

Estos contrastes fueron el resultado de sus antecedentes coloniales y de sus experiencias durante sus respectivos movimientos de independencia.

M fue el producto de una “conquista temprana”. Cuando los espa establecieron su dominio sobre las poblaciones ind de Mesoam en el siglo XVI, ven motivados por las ambiciones modernas de b de nuevas oportunidades de mejoramiento material, pero tambi tra consigo una fuerte tradici medieval. Espa durante ocho siglos hab estado inmersa en la lucha de los reinos cristianos por reconquistar el territorio ocupado por los musulmanes, lo cual reafirm su tradicionalismo religioso y social. De hecho los espa concibieron sus empresas conquistadoras como una continuaci de la expansi del cristianismo cat y las justificaron con la evangelizaci de los ind por ello al lado de conquistador estuvo el misionero. Asimismo, al dominar a comunidades nativas populosas contaron con mano de obra abundante, lo cual permiti que se reprodujera una estructura social parecida a la feudal; el noble se reprodujo en el conquistador, el clero mantuvo su misma posici y el lugar del siervo lo ocupo el ind

Por otra parte, los espa tra tambi una tradici de mestizaje; en Espa se hab mezclado griegos, fenicios, romanos, pueblos del norte de Europa, y jud As al enfrentarse a pueblos altamente desarrollados, como en el caso de los Aztecas, Mayas y las otras culturas de Mesoam no s los dominaron sino que tambi se mezclaron biol con ellos y asimilaron algunas de sus costumbres y estilos de vida. La paradoja de la conquista espa fue que los espa estaban orgullosos de su cultura europea (hispana) y trataron de continuarla en Am pero en el caso espec de M crearon algo diferente, una nueva sociedad y una nueva cultura.

El origen de Estados Unidos, fue el producto de una “colonizaci tard Cuando los ingleses establecieron la primera colonia permanente en Jamestown, Virginia en 1607, el Imperio espa en Am estaba pr consolidado y la Nueva Espa era ya un emporio econ La ciudad de M estaba entonces considerada una de las urbes m importantes del Imperio espa Inglaterra se sum tard al proceso de expansi colonial por su inestabilidad pol su proceso de transformaci econ y sus conflictos religiosos; sin embrago, estas mismas condiciones permitieron que no desapareciera el Parlamento y que se limitara la autoridad real, que se iniciara un revoluci industrial y que la autoridad religiosa se debilitara. Entre los factores que impulsaron la migraci inglesa, hubo dos determinantes: la transformaci de la econom y sus efectos en la sociedad, y los conflictos religiosos. As el proceso de colonizaci se dio como resultado de la iniciativa privada, con una m intervenci de los reyes, y su intenci fue abrir nuevos mercados y centros de producci de materias primas, o bien servir de refugio a las sectas religiosas que buscaron la mayor autonom posible de la autoridad brit En las diversas colonias se establecieron autoridades locales y se imit el sistema de gobierno limitado de Inglaterra, al tiempo que en dos de ellas y Rhode Island se permiti la tolerancia de cultos. Los colonos ingleses, por otra parte, no tra consigo una tradici de mestizaje, ni se enfrentaron al culturas ind altamente desarrolladas, por eso ni se pudo imponer un sistema social semi fedual como el espa sobre los pueblos abor ni se produjo una mezcla racial nueva. La paradoja de la experiencia inglesa, es que los ingleses vinieron, en su mayor decepcionados de su tradici europea y trataron de hacer algo nuevo en Am pero finalmente mantuvieron m los patrones culturales y raciales de su lugar de origen.

Los movimientos de independencia en cada pa fueron contrastes. Los Estados Unidos fueron el producto de una “independencia temprana”, mientras que M fue el resultado de una “independencia tard

Los colonos ingleses se rebelaron contra la autoridad brit cuando trat de crear un sistema de control imperial como resultado de la Guerra de 7 a lo cual implicaba el abandono de la pol de “negligencia benigna” bajo el cual hab crecido; en s fue un movimiento para mantener su autonom De hecho la guerra de independencia en los Estados Unidos fue para preservar esa modernidad que hab motivado la colonizaci Para ello contaron con condiciones internacionales favorables (la rivalidad entre Francia y Gran Breta que les permiti obtener recursos, alianzas y un reconocimiento aun antes de formalizar su emancipaci por lo cual fue un conflicto que dur s 5 a Adem la autonom de que hab gozado y su tradici pol le permiti contar con un grupo de l pol preparados para enfrentar el reto de la lucha de independencia y la formaci del nuevo estado.

M en cambio, obtuvo su independencia 40 a despu que Estados Unidos, en 1821. La guerra fue un conflicto complejo y fragmentado; no s se busco la emancipaci de Espa sino una verdadera revoluci social y pol Los mexicanos no contaron con condiciones externas favorables: en su inici en 1810, Europa estaba inmersa en la guerras napol y cuando finalmente se consigui la meta, once a despu se hab gestado un movimiento conservador que no favoreci el reconocimiento de los nuevos pa americanos. Por entre los dirigentes mexicanos, que sobrevivieron la sangrienta lucha por la independencia, hab hombres de gran talento, pero con poca experiencia pr en la pol

En 1789, la Constituci de Estados Unidos fue ratificada y el primer presidente de ese pa tomo posesi Estos acontecimientos parecieron implicar que “una uni m perfecta” hab sido establecida y que una nueva naci emerg Esta uni fue posible porque exist consenso en un punto sumamente importante: la ideolog del liberalismo. La sociedad americana era liberal aun antes de que el liberalismo, como doctrina pol y econ fuera formulada. As pues, sus principios fueron asimilados f porque ellos enfatizaban el inter individual como una meta leg y reafirmaban la diversidad y la competencia. En suma, Estados Unidos en 1789, intent un singular experimento: crear una naci a partir de un estado, que a su vez se apoyaba en una ideolog individualista y ego Por ello, la diversidad de intereses se manifestar en forma de coaliciones pol En suma, la emergencia de Estados Unidos fue el producto de un consenso pol e ideol Adem uno de los rasgos pol m importantes fue la continuidad de su liderazgo pol y su desarrollo institucional. Entre 1789 y 1860 se eligieron 15 presidentes y 36 legislaturas sin problemas ni cuestionamientos a la legitimidad de los comicios; y no obstante, que aparecieron los partidos pol lejos de ser un elemento disruptivo sirvieron para impulsar la democracia y para encontrar soluciones a los principales problemas.

Cuando M finalmente alcanz la independencia, un estado de optimista se hab adue de la sociedad mexicana. Pero la verdad era que la vida independiente de M no ven acompa de los mejores augurios. M heredaba de la Nueva Espa una sociedad extremadamente fragmentada, tanto en su composici como en los niveles de educaci y distribuci de la riqueza; adem tambi exist diferencia regionales. Las condiciones econ y sociales contribuyeron a exasperar el debate pol Inmediatamente despu de la independencia dos principales proyectos para constituir el nuevo estado fueron propuestos: uno fue el que eventualmente ser llamado el “liberal”, y el otro fue el que ser conocido como “conservador”. Aunque los miembros de estas posiciones coincid en sus metas econ y aun sociales, al querer sinceramente hacer de M un pa moderno y pr difer substancialmente en los medios.

Los conservadores enfatizaban la necesidad de proceder cautamente, sin trastocar la estructura social, y sobre todo preservando las instituciones que jugaban un papel primordial para mantener unida a una sociedad fragmentada, especialmente la Iglesia Cat Los liberales, en cambio, propon reformas sociales y econ radicales. Pero el conflicto entre ambas posturas fue m dram en la arena pol los liberales propugnaban por el establecimiento un estado republicano federal; mientras los conservadores reiteraron la necesidad de un estado centralizado, y se inclinaban fuertemente por la monarqu como forma de gobierno. Eventualmente se desarrollar una facci intermedia que fue conocida como la de ” los moderados”.

Uno de los principales problemas fue que esos proyectos pol fueron sostenidos y debatidos por una intelectual, cuyos contactos con el pueblo era muy escasos. Entre 1821 y 1850, el debate tuvo lugar casi exclusivamente entre los miembros de esos grupos. De hecho, no hubo partidos pol en el sentido estricto de la palabra, sino coaliciones coyunturales; adem la poblaci no estaba acostumbrada al debate pol En esas condiciones la brecha entre la dirigencia intelectual y el pueblo, fue ocupada por individuos que hab adquirido alg prestigio a nivel local o nacional caciques o caudillos que en la mayor de los casos antepusieron sus intereses personales a cualquier compromiso ideol y nacional.

En esas condiciones, es, comprensible, hasta cierto punto, la inestabilidad pol de las primeras cuatro d de la vida independiente de M Entre 1821 y 1847, cuatro tipos de gobierno fueron ensayados: la monarqu en 1822, la rep federal en 1824, y dos formas de rep centralizada, la primera en 1836 y la segunda en 1843. A ese lamentable cuadro, debe a que M se enfrent a un ambiente internacional hostil. Vista en su conjunto la problem del desarrollo mexicano entre 1821 y 1867, podr concluirse que s la existencia de un v profundo, m all de los econ y pol puede dar raz de la supervivencia del pa por ello podr afirmarse que en M en contraste con Estados Unidos s exist una naci pero el estado fue muy precario.

En suma, mientras Estados surgi desde su origen colonial como un estado y sociedad modernos, para M modernizarse signific romper estructuras, destruir viejas instituciones y construir nuevas y modificar la forma de pensar de sus habitantes. Estos divergentes or ayudan a explicar la posici de los dos pa durante la guerra de 1846 a 1848.
borse peuterey Their Colonial Roots and the Legacy of their Independence Movements

piumino lungo peuterey The Voyage of the Odyssey

outlet barberino woolrich The Voyage of the Odyssey

The crew found sperm whales in abundance around the archipelago, ensuring the success of the expedition in the Canary Island. An equally important component of the Voyage’ is sharing our research with the local community through the media, visiting schools, and opening the Odyssey for tours.

This past month, the Museo Elder a science and technology museum in Las Palmas hosted a presentation day for local school children from Grades 8, 9 and 11 from the American School of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria. The crew gave presentations about Ocean Alliance, the science of the Voyage, whales found around the world and human impacts upon them. In addition, we presented some of our findings around the Canary Islands with an emphasis on the unique cetacean diversity and the value of conservation.

The following day, teachers from the school toured the Odyssey to discuss how to incorporate whales and the Voyage into their curriculums and why connecting with a real scientific expedition from the classroom is valuable for the students.

“I think kids get most excited about science when it is most applicable to their life and it’s something that they can see and understand. They were enthusiast [towards the Odyssey presentation], they were curious, they had questions. They wanted to know more. They wanted to be involved. They have made some plans on how they can be involved in helping the whale population around their island. ”

Margo Simmons Science teacher American School of Las Palmas.

Margo gave the crew letters written by some of her students who are concerned about whales after hearing the presentation. The following are a selection of quotes from the students’ letters.

“When you showed us the picture of the plastic contamination, we were very sad and we think we need to do something to prevent that big problem.”

“We are frustrated about the sonar testing that will happen in our island and our class is trying to do as much as possible to convince the governments to stop doing it. Most of the students didn’t know about the sonar testing and now that we know we can do something about it.” Dottee and Lazoa

“We find the job you are performing in all the countries you visit, a job of very conscientious people. You have shown great concern over this ongoing and increasing problem. We are very happy to see people like those in Ocean Alliance, that are so worried about our common environment. Thank you for taking the initiative and educating all possible schools on the data you’ve found showing how greatly pollution can affect marine life and showing us as well how much an action as simple as picking up or not throwing garbage on the beaches or in the sea, can make a great difference and can help improve the lives of those living around us. and Venus S.

“Like you mentioned, I was one of the many that believed that whale hunting was no longer, but I was wrong.”

“We really liked the audio that Chris played for us. We don’t think we’d ever heard something like that. It was an experience that we’ll never forget.”

“We learned a lot about whales especially the singing of [humpback] whales and the sperm whales. We would like to help to prevent the seas being polluted and the whales from dying”

“The presentation about whales made me think a lot about human contamination. I was struck to see our effect on those poor whales who have been existing for centuries. Though there was one thing that stayed in my mind; it was the information which you revealed to us that female sperm whale pass on their body toxins into the calf though milk. It made me think that if this occurs, then every decendant would be accumulating the whole families toxins in its body, therefore, in the future, dying. On the whole I’ve found that your presentation has made me more conscious about my actions and those of my peers.”

The Museo Elder arranged presentations over two days for students from the University of Las Palmas, many of whom later toured the research vessel Odyssey. It was an opportunity for science students from the Canary Islands and visiting students studying in Las Palmas from mainland Europe to see a working whale research vessel and to interact with researchers and crew of the Odyssey. This personal experience had quite an impact on the students who told us that it opened their eyes to careers in science especially marine science and oceanography.

At the conclusion of our research, SECAC (Sociedad Para El Estudio De Los Cetceos En El Archipelago Canario) and local governments from Fueteventura and Lanzarote invited the crew to give presentations to the general public and government officials about the Voyage of the Odyssey and the threats that whales face in the Canary Islands. These two islands are the sight where recent mass standings of beaked whales occurred in conjunction with naval sonar testing. In addition, there is growing concern about oil exploration, in particular the use of air guns and drilling, and its potential affect on local whales populations.

Antonio Gallardo, the Environment Manager representing the local government on the island of Fueteventura, expressed concern to the crew and discussed why it is important the Odyssey help raise awareness about these issues.

“The people of Fuerteventura, represented by their democratic institution, are very worried by the increasing number of military maneuvers using sonars and other devices and the fatal consequences of these exercises for marine mammals. We believe that it is necessary to declare the sea of Canary Islands as a protected area and free of acoustic pollution. The help of the scientific team of the Ocean Alliance assists us in transmitting to the governments of the EU [European Union] and the USA that it is important to keep our oceans free of acoustic pollution in order to keep our cetacean diversity for future generations.”

Antonio Gallardo Manager of Environment The Odyssey received much media attention in the Canary Islands. Due to previous mass strandings of beaked whales linked to NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) naval sonar testing and highly publicized incidents of fast ferries colliding with and killing sperm whales, the research and education of the RV Odyssey was highlighted by local and national newspapers and television. The conclusion of our final research leg also coincided with the five year anniversary of the Voyage.

Two museums invited the Odyssey to participate in exhibits about the Voyage. Museo Elder hosts 1 2 large temporary exhibits a year. In October, 2005, the museum will open an exhibit highlighting scientific oceanic voyages that visited the Canary Islands. This 6 month exhibit will include Darwin’s historic Voyage of the Beagle, while “Roger Payne’s Voyage of the Odyssey” is the example of a modern day oceanic scientific expedition.

Museo de Cetceos de las Islas Canarias is due to open in late April on the island of Lanzorote. A joint project of SECAC and Museum Director Vidal Martin, this exceptional museum contains a small video theatre, models and skeletons of a wide variety cetaceans with a focus on little known beaked whale species, and education information panels in Spanish, English and German. The Odyssey media team is providing Vidal with sperm whale vocalizations, videos and still images, and we look forward to working with education staff who regularly search the PBS website for facts about cetaceans.

The Canary Islands are one of the most extraordinary areas the Odyssey crew researched in over the past five years of the expedition. In addition to the richness and diversity of marine life, people are concerned about the oceans and are working to solve the multiple threats whales face here. The crew experienced genuine support and friendship from researchers, educators, students, local government and the media. We will not soon forget our time in the Canary Islands and would especially like to thank Ana Pena and Vidal Martin of SECAC for their tireless efforts in setting up presentations and their continual translations to local media and above all their friendship and vigorous enthusiasm for the study and conservation of cetaceans.
piumino lungo peuterey The Voyage of the Odyssey

peuterey online The hidden sexism that could sway the election

giubbini peuterey The hidden sexism that could sway the election

Armando Manno was in a good mood. His bartending shift at Louie’s Bar Grill in Akron, Ohio was almost over, and the Cleveland Cavaliers were ahead in the first quarter of a pivotal playoff game. It was May 25, near the end of the primary season, and talk had shifted to the presidential election. “Trump is going to make the right moves,” Manno, the son of Italian immigrants and a lifelong Republican, said as he wiped down the bar. “You don’t become a gazillionaire if you don’t know what you’re doing. He’s gotta have something upstairs.” As for Hillary Clinton, Manno said that he didn’t want her in the White House. She was untrustworthy and willing to say anything to get elected, he said. And she possessed another, more fundamental shortcoming, Manno added: her gender. “Nothing against women,” he said, “but I don’t want a woman president right now.”

Manno laughed and gave a sheepish, that’s just how I feel shrug. As he turned away, a waitress named Mary Stone quietly offered a different point of view. Though she’s also planning to vote for Trump in the fall, Stone said she could relate to the cultural barriers that Clinton faces as a woman. “Men are still chauvinistic enough to think that women can’t do the same job as them. And I think that’s an issue.”

Heading into the general election, Clinton has a wide lead over Donald Trump among minority and female voters. party, has struggled with the one big voting bloc that’s truly up for grabs in 2016: moderate white men. White men also happen to be Trump’s base. If he doesn’t get a record number of them to turn out, it’s hard to see how he wins the presidency. Women, African Americans, and Latinos will still play a crucial role in the race. They skew Democratic and anti Trump. If Clinton keeps that coalition together, she can afford to lose some white men. But she can’t afford to lose too many.

The Clinton campaign knows this. Clinton spent significant time in the primaries courting white male voters in particular white, mostly working class men in the key Rust Belt and Midwestern swing states that usually decide presidential elections. And yet, despite all the effort, the results were abysmal. Clinton lost the overall male vote to Bernie Sanders by an average of 10 points in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa and Wisconsin, according to an analysis of exit poll data. She also lost men by double digits in states as varied as Nevada, Connecticut and Oklahoma. In contrast, she won the male vote by wide margins in states that have large numbers of African American and Latino voters. In short, white men are the last holdout.

Female candidates have long faced more resistance, and received less support from men and women alike, even though the percentage of people who say they feel comfortable voting for women has gone steadily up. In 1937, just 33 percent of Americans said they would vote for a female presidential candidate, according to Gallup’s first poll on the subject. By 2015, that number had climbed to 92 percent. But giving a non sexist answer to a pollster is easy enough; the country has almost aced that test. Actually voting for a female presidential candidate has proven to be a much bigger challenge.

Obviously, gender isn’t the only factor contributing to Clinton’s struggles with white male voters. She has real shortcomings, like any male or female candidate. They were evident in her failure to put Sanders away early on in the primaries. Her national approval ratings are remarkably low for a presidential nominee, and part of that can be traced to men and women across the political spectrum who have legitimate policy disagreements with Clinton (though her likeability numbers are gendered as well; and of course some women hold subconscious biases towards female candidates, too). White men began abandoning the Democratic Party in the 1960s, for reasons that had nothing to do with gender. The trend accelerated under Ronald Reagan and shows no signs of slowing today.

“Bias in general, whether it’s directed at gender, race, or anything else, is more automatic than people think,” said Susan Fiske, a leading researcher on prejudice and stereotypes who teaches at Princeton University. “And it’s also more ambivalent than we realize. So that makes it harder to detect in ourselves.”

I should say here that my goal is not to mansplain the way that sexism works to people who already get it. Rather, it’s to work through a thorny issue at the heart of this election that many men, like myself, probably haven’t spent as much time thinking about as we should. We don’t have to if we don’t want to, which is just one of many unfair privileges that come with being a man.

The theory of ambivalent sexism, more than anything else, helps illustrate men’s subconscious bias against Clinton, but it’s hard to understand at least it was for me because it clashes with many people’s ideas about prejudice. It can be easy to think of bias and racism in absolute terms. You’re either racist or you’re not. The same thinking applied to gender up until the mid 1990s. That’s when Fiske, working with Peter Glick, a social psychologist at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin, published a breakthrough paper that laid out their ambivalent sexism theory. The theory, which has since been accepted by researchers around the world, helped form the basis for how experts study sexism today. Fiske and Glick separated sexism into two distinct categories. The first kind, known as “hostile” sexism, encompasses overtly negative views about women. It’s what we usually associate with gender discrimination. The second kind, known as “benevolent” sexism, describes positive attitudes and actions which men take toward women that are based, deep down, in feelings of superiority and dominance.

“Men have ambivalent attitudes toward women that are prejudiced and paternalistic, but that are also based on love and interdependence,” Glick said. In other words, we can say we like women and really mean it while also harboring a combination of conflicting biases that we don’t even realize exist. If that sounds confusing, it’s because it is. For any male readers out there who might want to grapple with this some more: the next time you offer to carry your wife or girlfriend or female friend’s heavy shopping bag, or go on a drive with a member of the opposite sex and insist on doing all of the driving, try and honestly break down the gender dynamic. Sure, you mean well. But it may not be that simple.

When it comes to politics and the 2016 presidential election, hostile sexism plays out in obvious ways. We have Trump to thank for that. He has insulted the physical appearance of Carly Fiorina, his lone female primary opponent (“Look at that face. Would anyone vote for that?”), and attacked FOX News host Megyn Kelly (“She had blood coming out of her wherever”) after Kelly highlighted his long track record of misogynist comments at a Republican debate. The list goes on and on from there. For Clinton, however, the root of her problem with white men stems from a central aspect of benevolent sexism, according to Glick: its use as a tool to reward women who accept traditional gender roles, and punish those who don’t. Any first lady who was discouraged from meddling in her husband’s policy work, and received lavish praise for the food at a White House function, has first hand experience of benevolent sexism.

And this is the crux of the gender issue for Clinton. An extensive body of research has shown that women who seek leadership positions often encounter resistance from both men and women if they violate gender norms by acting in stereotypically masculine ways, like being competitive, assertive and self promotional. This is known among social psychologists as the “backlash” effect, and examples abound. For instance, though there are more women in middle management positions in the business world today than there were in previous generations, just 4.2 percent of CEOs at Fortune 500 companies are female. The backlash effect extends to politics, too.

“The more female politicians are seen as striving for power, the less they’re trusted and the more moral outrage gets directed at them,” said Terri Vescio, a psychology professor at Penn State who studies gender bias. “You’re damned if you do and damned if you don’t,” she continued. “If you’re perceived as competent, you’re not perceived as warm. But if you’re liked and trusted, you’re not seen as competent.”

Women in politics know this well. “I think a woman has a hard time running as a woman,” said Eleanor Holmes Norton, a veteran civil and women’s rights leader who represents the District of Columbia in Congress. “Even as Donald Trump is running openly and with great aplomb as a man.”

This theoretical framework is extremely useful in decoding the real life views of male voters like Tomi McKelvey, a 20 year old beer store clerk who grew up in Dravosburg, a working class town outside of Pittsburgh. McKelvey’s father is a steel mill worker, and his mother is an accountant. He was an offensive lineman on his high school football team, and moves with the gracefulness of a former athlete. McKelvey, who is white, described himself as a moderate Republican. He disagrees with Trump’s most inflammatory proposals, such as banning Muslim immigrants from entering the country. Still, he voted for Trump in the primary and is planning to back him again in the general election. He fits into Trump’s target demographic. If enough people like Tomi McKelvey vote for Trump, he has a real shot.

McKelvey told me he didn’t like or trust Clinton. He said he wants a woman to become president someday, but didn’t think that Clinton was the “right one.”

“I’m not a real Hillary fan, but I respect her,” McKelvey said.

When I asked him at another point if he viewed male and female roles in society any differently, McKelvey replied, “With a man you look for leadership and guidance. With a woman you look for companionship and nurturing. A motherly role.”

McKelvey isn’t unique in thinking this way. Many Americans have been conditioned to assign men and women prescribed gender roles. And when Clinton goes off script, which she did a long time ago, and acts like a politician that is to say, no different than a man science shows that McKelvey and the rest of us are wired to judge her differently, and more negatively, than her male competition. That’s the double standard at work, and that’s the point. It is very real, and it has a profound effect on our view of men, women, and who gets to have the power.

The Iowa Democratic caucuses were a turning point in 2008. Barack Obama’s surprise victory signaled that whites would vote for a black candidate, instantly turning him into a true contender. But in 2016, Clinton had to wait much longer (until the end of the primaries) for her version of an “Iowa” moment a primary win or key speech that the country interpreted as a critical shift in gender relations. Like Obama, Clinton also made history in Iowa, but her win didn’t symbolize a decisive change in how men view female politicians. The exit polls and Sanders’ improbably close second place finish told the opposite story. Clinton won with women and non white voters. But she lost the male vote in Iowa by 14 points.

Iowa set the pattern for the rest of the primaries. An overtly gendered narrative emerged, pitting Sanders’ inspiring political “revolution” against Clinton’s plodding, eat your vegetables “march” to the nomination. There were times when Clinton allowed herself to stop and enjoy the moment. On the night of her landslide win in South Carolina in late February, Clinton took the stage at a college gym in downtown Columbia looking visibly relieved. The results made clear that Clinton would win big with minority voters, and build an insurmountable delegate lead. Super Tuesday was still one week away, but at that point her Democratic primary battle with Sanders was effectively over.

The atmosphere at her South Carolina primary night rally was celebratory. But the win represented a bittersweet tradeoff for advocates of gender equality, regardless of their political affiliation. Yes, Clinton was going to win the nomination, but largely because women and non white voters were supporting her candidacy. White men appeared much more comfortable voting for Sanders.

That’s exactly what ended up happening. In the months that followed, Clinton won diverse states and Sanders carried predominantly white ones. The racial divide was startling. During one stretch in late March and early April, when Sanders won seven consecutive contests, the Democratic electorate in the states that he carried was on average 72 percent white. And the gender gap in white states remained constant. Sanders won the male vote by 29 points in Wisconsin, and 19 points in West Virginia, to name just two examples. Sanders developed a loyal following, but it mainly consisted of young people, including a vanguard of “Bernie Bros,” and older white men.

Not all male Sanders supporters are flagrant sexists, of course. Most aren’t. They responded to Sanders’ economic message and unvarnished campaign trail persona. He successfully cast himself as an outsider candidate despite his decades long career in Congress, which is no small feat. The 74 year old socialist senator from Vermont turned out to be a much better fundraiser than anybody expected. Bernie struck a nerve. At the same time, it’s not a coincidence that so many white men chose him over the female alternative.

“I don’t think there’s any question that there’s gender bias,” said Ryan Geiser, 29, an ardent Sanders supporter from Bellevue, Pa. Geiser, who is white, said that he didn’t base his decision on gender, but knows plenty of Sanders supporters who did. “If Sanders had gone up against a man who had the same politics as Hillary, he wouldn’t have done as well because more white men would have voted for the other guy.” There is strong evidence that subconscious bias shaped the way white men viewed Clinton in the primaries. So just imagine how much sexism could impact the general election, now that Clinton is running against Donald Trump.

In late May, I interviewed a group of five white men who get together each afternoon at the Mountaineer Cafe in Berlin, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The day we met at the diner, where a cup of coffee costs $1.55 and comes with a view of the main intersection in town, a light rain was falling outside. Don Williams, a 91 year old retired welder, and Max Bowser, who is 75 and worked as a truck driver, were the first to arrive. They were soon joined by Elmer Altfather, 83, a retired carpenter; Ted Robb, 80, who worked for a railroad company; and Larry Pritts, 75, a retired heavy equipment operator and former member of Berlin’s town council. The longtime friends are split along party lines: two are Democrats, and three are Republicans.

“Donald Trump scares me,” Bowser, who is a Republican, said as our conversation got underway. “But we need a change, and I’m willing to give someone the right to change it.”

Williams, who is also conservative, and has followed the election closely despite his advanced age, chimed in: “We need a big boom.”

“Yeah,” said Bowser. “But not Hillary. I don’t like the way she lies. They’ve caught her in so many lies.”
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peuterey hurricane The Dormitio Virginis in Catalonia and a painting

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Il pittore Antonio di Agostino è documentato a Fabriano tra 1451 e 1489. I documenti sembrano suggerire che la sua attività fu circoscritta alla città natale. La Dormitio Virginis della Pinacoteca civica “B. Molajoli” di fabriano sconfessa però questa dimensione puramente locale. Il pittore si è infatti servito di un modello estraneo alla tradizione artistica italiana della metà del Quattrocento. Zeri riteneva che l’opera ripetesse un “modulo frequente nei retablos spagnoli”. Questa ipotesi, accantonata dalla critica più recente, trae ora invece nuova forza da un’accurata analisi della fortuna del tema della Dormitio Virginis nella pittura spagnola tra XIV e XV secolo: la tavola fabrianese si ispira a una tradizione iconografica e compositiva che ha avuto un solido sviluppo in Catalogna. L’idea che la cultura di Antonio da Fabriano partecipi della “koiné” artistica mediterranea, incontro di cultura fiamminga e valenciano catalana, è confermata anche dal discusso San Girolamo di Baltimora e da un documento che sembrerebbe alludere ad un viaggio del pittore da Genova verso Sud.

Thanks to several documents we know that between 1451 and 1489 the painter Antonio di Agostino was in Fabriano, where he seems to have lived and worked for his entire life. However, the Dormitio Virginis owned by the Pinacoteca Civica “B. Molajoli” of Fabriano tells us something different about his artistic culture: the painter was inspired by a model alien to Italian painting in the middle of the fifteenth century. Zeri argued that the painting recalls a representation that is usual in the Spanish retablos. This idea has been recently rejected by scholars, but it is now supported by a new analysis of the spread of the representation of the Dormitio Virginis in Spanish painting in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: Antonio’s painting is strictly related to a traditional Catalan iconography. The culture of Antonio da Fabriano is connected to the artistic Mediterranean koiné characterized by Flemish, Catalan and Valencian influences. This relationship is confirmed by the debated Saint Jerome in Baltimore and by a document that alludes to the painter’s voyage south from Genoa. (1994), Petrus Christus Renaissance Master of Bruges, catalogo della mostra (New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 14 aprile 31 luglio 1994), New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Alcoy i Pedrs R. (2005a), Ferrer Bassa, un creador d’estil, in Pladevall i Font 2005a, pp. 147 170.

Alcoy i Pedrs R. (2005b), La plenitud de Jaume Serra, in Pladevall i Font 2005a, pp. 272 277.

Alcoy i Pedrs R. (2005c), Pere de Valldebriga o el pintor dels àngels, in Pladevall i Font 2005a, pp. 296 304.

Algeri G. (1991), 1440 1460: la Liguria, il mondo fiammingo e la “cultura mediterranea”,in G. Algeri, A. De Floriani, La pittura in Liguria. Il Quattrocento, Genova: Tormena, pp. 161 224.

Aliaga Morell J. (1996), Els Peris i la pintura valenciana medieval, Valencia: Edicions Alfons el Magnà nim.

Alizeri F. (1870), Notizie dei professori di disegno in Liguria dalle origini al secolo XVI, 6 voll. (1870 1880), Genova: Sambolino.

Bellocchi L. (2012), L’evoluzione del tema iconografico della Dormitio Virginis in ambito italiano, Annales. 65 76.

Benito Doménech F. (1996), Cinco siglos de Pintura Valenciana. Obras del Museo de Bellas Artes deValencia, catalogo della mostra (Madrid, Fundacin Central Hispano, ottobre dicembre 1996), Madrid: Fundaci n Central Hispano.

Benito Doménech F., Gmez Frechina J. (2009), La Edad de Oro del Arte Valenciano. Rememoracin de un centenario, catalogo della mostra (Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes, 1 febbraio 27 aprile 2009), Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana.

Berg Sobrè J. (1989), Behind the altar table. The Development of the painted retable in Spain 1350 1550, Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

Berg Sobrè J. (1998), Bartolomé de Crdenas “El Bermejo”. Pintor errante en la Corona de Aragn, San Francisco : International Scholars Publications.

Berg Sobrè J. (2003), Sobre Bartolomé Bermejo, in Ruiz i Quesada 2003a, pp. 19 27.

Boccardo P., Di Fabio C., a cura di (1997), Pittura fiamminga in Liguria: secoli XIV XVII, Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana Editoriale.

Bologna F. (1997), Napoli e le rotte mediterranee della pittura da Alfonso il Magnanimo a Ferdinando i lCattolico, Napoli: Società Napoletana di Storia Patria.

Bologna F.,
peuterey hurricane The Dormitio Virginis in Catalonia and a painting
De Melis F. (2013), Antonello da Messina, catalogo della mostra (Rovereto, MART, 5 ottobre 2013 12 gennaio 2014), Milano: Electa. (2010), Van Eyck to Drer: early Netherlandish painting and central Europe, catalogo della mostra (Bruges, Groeningemuseum, 29 ottobre 2010 30 gennaio 2011), Warnsfeld: Lannoo.

Campbell A. (2005), A Spectacular celebration of the Assumption in Siena, Renaissance Quarterly, 58, 2, pp. 435 463.

Caporaletti S. (2010 2011, stampa 2012), Accenti fiamminghi in Antonio da Fabriano: riscontri documentari e ipotesi, Notizie da Palazzo Albani, XXXIX, pp. 41 56.

Caporaletti S. (2013),Giovanni Boccati e Antonio da Fabriano: un contributo allo studio dei rapporti Italia Fiandra alla metà del Quattrocento, tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Padova, Scuola di Dottorato in Storia e Critica dei Beni Artistici, Musicali e dello Spettacolo, relatore prof. M. Pietrogiovanna.

Cavelli Traverso C., a cura di (2003), Primitivi fiamminghi in Liguria, Recco: Le Mani. Ceriana M., Christiansen K., Daffra E., De Marchi A. (2004), Fra Carnevale. Un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca,catalogo della mostra (Milano, Pinacoteca di Brera, 13 ottobre 2004 9 gennaio 2005; New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1 febbraio 1 maggio 2005), Milano: Olivares.

Challéat C. (2012), Dalle Fiandre a Napoli. Committenza artistica, politica, diplomazia al tempo di Alfonso il Magnanimo e Filippo il Buono, Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

Cleri B. (1997), Antonio da Fabriano: eccentrico protagonista nel panorama artistico del Quattrocento marchigiano, Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana Editoriale.

Company X., Franco B., Puig Sanchis I., Aliaga J., Rusconi S. (2012), Una Flagelacin de Joan Reixach de Collecin particolar, nuevos documentos y consideraciones sobre el binomio Jacomart Reixach, Archivo Espaol de Arte, LXXXV, 340, pp. 363 373.

Cornudella R. (2012), Catalua 1400: el gtico Internacional,vcatalogo della mostra (Barcellona, Museo Nacional d’art de Catalunya, 20 marzo 15 luglio 2012), Barcellona: MNAC.
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peuterey outlet online shop The American Army in the Mexican War

piumini woolrich The American Army in the Mexican War

Historiador y conservador, El Alamo

Durante el siglo XIX, Estados Unidos ten dos ej El primero, un ej permanente com conocido como Ej de EUA, hab sido autorizado por el Congreso en 1789. Designado como el ej regular, este cuerpo estaba formado por oficiales comisionados por el Congreso y soldados de tropa que se hab alistado por un periodo de cinco a En 1792, el Congreso cre un segundo ej con la funci de ser auxiliar del regular, llamado “la milicia”. Una diferencia principal entre el ej regular y el de la milicia era que el primero era un cuerpo nacional, mientras que el segundo se refer a los ej de varios estados.

El Congreso estipul tres casos en los que la milicia podr ser llamada al servicio federal: para ejecutar las leyes de los Estados Unidos, para suprimir insurrecciones y para repeler invasiones. Este arreglo de dos facetas form la base del establecimiento militar estadounidense durante la guerra contra M Ej de Estados Unidos no estaba preparado para la guerra. Mientras que el Congreso hab autorizado un cuerpo de 8,613 hombres y oficiales, el n real de soldados en uniforme era menos de 5,500. Muchos de los comandantes del regimiento se hab alistado al servicio antes de la Guerra de 1812 y estaban demasiado mayores y enfermos para el servicio activo. Las compa estaban muy por abajo de su fuerza autorizada de 42 soldados rasos, muchas de las cuales s llenaban la mitad de sus listas. En reacci al pobre estado del ej una vez comenzada la guerra, el Congreso increment a cien el n de soldados rasos dentro de sus compa individuales. Tambi cre una compa de Ingenieros de EUA, as como un nuevo regimiento de Rifles Montados de EUA. Estas medidas resultaron cuando mucho en improvisaciones temporales.

La presencia de un gran n de graduados de la Academia Militar de Estados Unidos estuvo a favor del Ej de EUA. Estos oficiales, en su mayor tenientes y capitanes, formaron un unido cuerpo cuya habilidad de liderazgo y capacitaci ayud a compensar la escasez inicial de soldados. Los historiadores se que entre sus filas se incluyeron hombres como George G. Made, Ulysses S. Grant, George B. McClellan, P. G. T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, Joseph E. Johnston y Robert E. Lee, oficiales que posteriormente llegaron a comandar grandes ej de la Guerra Civil.

Para el momento en que la guerra contra M hab pasado por revisiones substanciales, el sistema de la milicia ya hab mostrado que era de poco fiar. En la Guerra de 1812 se dieron dos problemas que pusieron sus fallas en evidencia. Primero, muchos estados prohibieron que sus tropas participaran en operaciones militares en tierras extranjeras. Segundo, por ley, un hombre de la milicia s pod servir por un periodo de noventa d lo cual significaba que el reclutamiento, la capacitaci y la formaci de tropas ocupaban la mayor parte del tiempo de la unidad, quedando muy poco tiempo para luchar. Como soluci a este problema, el Congreso cre una subclase de milicia llamada “voluntarios” que no estaba confinada a estas dos restricciones. El 13 de mayo de 1846, el Congreso autoriz al presidente Polk para que reclutara 50,000 voluntarios para doce meses.

Aunque ambos eran parte del Ej de EUA, los regulares y los voluntarios eran notablemente diferentes. Los observadores ve muy poca interacci entre los oficiales y los soldados, ocupando cada cual un puesto claramente definido dentro del establecimiento militar. La mayor de los estadounidenses evitaban alistarse con los regulares, lo cual garantizaba que un alto porcentaje de soldados, cabos y sargentos fueran extranjeros. La combinaci de oficiales aristocr y extranjeros “contratados”, caus que muchos estadounidenses desconfiaran de los regulares. Despu de todo, ciudadano estadounidense se conformar con $7 mensuales como un soldado raso del ej a menos que estuviera obligado por circunstancias extremas? Por otro lado, el voluntario parec ajustarse mejor al esp de la joven rep porque era un soldado ciudadano. La pol entraba en el sistema, ya que la mayor eleg sus propios oficiales.

Las unidades de voluntarios eran reclutadas localmente, lo cual permit que amigos, vecinos y parientes sirvieran juntos. Aunque nominalmente respond a la autoridad federal, los voluntarios manten fuertes v con sus estados de origen. La naturaleza democr de los voluntarios significaba que la disciplina en este cuerpo era menos extricta que en el de los regulares.

Conforme avanzaba la guerra se fueron necesitando m tropas. En noviembre de 1846, una vez que se dio cuenta que la mayor de los hombres de un a se ir al vencimiento de su t el Congreso hizo otro llamado para reclutar voluntarios. Esta segunda ola de voluntarios se alist para la duraci de la guerra. El 11 de febrero de 1847, el Congreso cre diez regimientos adicionales de regulares para servir durante el periodo de la guerra. En alg momento de la guerra contra M sirvieron, en total, 26,922 regulares y 73,260 voluntarios.

Los elementos del combate eran los mismos para regulares y voluntarios. La mayor de las tropas fueron reclutadas y capacitadas como infanter y armadas con mosquetes de chispa. Los regulares mantuvieron dos regimientos de caballer ligera llamados “dragones”, creando para la guerra un tercero. Fueron reclutados varios voluntarios para servir principalmente como regimientos en monturas en el Ej de Ocupaci de Taylor y en el Ej Occidental de Kearny. La artiller form el tercer ramo del servicio. Poco antes del comienzo de la guerra, el ej equip varias compa como “artiller de vuelo” en las que cada ca ten su propia montura. Esta innovaci significaba que la unidad podr galopar por el campo de batalla, llevando sus armas ad fuera que m se necesitaran. Este estilo de artiller fue instrumental en varias victorias de Estados Unidos.

Los lectores que gustan de la historia militar encontrar muy interesantes las batallas y los l de la guerra contra M Adem los militares estadounidenses son fascinantes porque revelan mucho de la sociedad en la de Jackson. A quienes deseen aprender m sobre el Ej de Estados Unidos durante la guerra contra M se les recomiendan varias obras. La disertaci de 1953 del doctor en filosof John Porter de la Universidad de Emory, “With the American Army in Mexico, 1846 1848,” sigue siendo un sobresaliente estudio del soldado estadounidense en M M accesible para la mayor de los lectores ser el t “Army of Manifest Destiny: The American Soldier in the Mexican War, 1846 1848” de James M. McCaffrey. Un trabajo m reciente que examina el ej es “Mr. Polk Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War” de Richard Bruce Winders. Tambi se recomiendan los muchos vol de cartas y diarios publicados que describen la guerra con un tono m personal, dando al lector el “punto de vista del soldado” sobre la guerra.
peuterey outlet online shop The American Army in the Mexican War

peuterey donna lungo Taux de publication des travaux originaux présentés oralement lors des journées fran

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Objectif : évaluer le pourcentage de travaux originaux présentés oralement aux Journées Franaises de Radiologie (JFR) 1996 ayant donné lieu à une publication ultérieure dans une revue indexée sur Medline.

Matériels et méthodes : à partir du livre des résumés des JFR 1996, deux observateurs en conférence ont sélectionné les travaux originaux présentés oralement, apparaissant dans le livre des résumés sous la forme d’un abstract organisé type Objectifs, Matériels et méthodes, Résultats, Conclusion. La recherche de la publication ultérieure de ces travaux a été effectuée sur Medline en analysant les années 1997, 1998 et 1999, en effectuant une recherche par nom d’auteur. Pour les articles originaux publiés dans des revues, on a relevé systématiquement la revue dans laquelle l’article a été publié et l’année de publication.

Résultats : 456 travaux originaux présentés oralement ont été analysés. Trente neuf articles publiés dans les années 1997, 1998 et 1999 correspondaient à ces communications, soit un taux de publication de 8,5 %. Parmi les 39 articles publiés, 10 l’ont été dans le journal Radiology, 4 dans le journal European Radiology, 4 dans le Journal de Radiologie et 21 dans d’autres journaux. Le taux de publication était supérieur à la moyenne pour deux sessions : la session Recherche avec un taux de publication de 22 % et la session Ostéo articulaire avec un taux de publication de 16 %.

Conclusion : moins de 10 % des travaux originaux présentés oralement aux JFR en 1996 ont été publiés ultérieurement dans des revues indexées. Ce taux est inférieur aux taux de publication ultérieure habituellement relevés dans d’autres congrès.

Publication rate of papers originally presented at the national french congress of radiology in 1996Objective: the purpose of the present study was to determine the publication rate in Medline indexed journals of papers originally presented at the Journées Franaises de Radiologie (JFR96).

Materials and Methods: proceedings from the JFR 96 were reviewed by two observers in conference. Publication year and the journal of publication were recorded.

Results: 456 oral presentations were analysed, 39 papers were subsequently published corresponding to a publication rate of 8,5%. 10 papers were published in Radiology, 4 in European Radiology and 4 in the Journal de Radiologie, the other 21 in other journals. Publication rate was significantly higher for two sessions: Research session (publication rate was 22%) and Bone and Joint session (publication rate was 16%).

Conclusion: less than 10% of abstracts presented at JFR 96 were subsequently published in Medline indexed journals. This rate is lower than the publication rate of papers presented at other medical meetings.

La diffusion des travaux originaux de recherche se fait traditionnellement sous deux formes la communication effectuée lors de congrès ou de réunions scientifiques,la publication écrite dans une revue ad hoc .

L’avantage principal de la communication lors d’un congrès ou d’une réunion scientifique est la rapidité de diffusion des résultats, le seul facteur limitant étant alors constitué par l’intervalle de temps existant entre la date limite d’envoi du résumé et la date du congrès. En revanche, cette diffusion est relativement limitée aux personnes présentes dans la salle et à ceux qui disposent du recueil des résumés des communications. Pour ces derniers, ils ne disposent généralement que d’un résumé très bref du travail. C’est dire l’intért de réaliser une publication écrite secondaire à la présentation orale.

L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer le taux de publication dans des revues référencées sur Medline de travaux originaux présentés oralement lors des Journées Franaises de Radiologie (JFR) 1996.

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A partir du livre de résumés des JFR 1996 [1JFR’96 livre des résumés. J Radiol 1996;77:759 951.

Après cette première sélection, une seconde sélection a été effectuée pour sélectionner les travaux originaux présentés dans le livre des résumés sous la forme d’un abstract organisé, type Objectifs, Matériels et méthodes, Résultats, Conclusion. Ont été également sélectionnées les communications orales rapportant un cas clinique, mme si dans ce dernier cas, la section Matériels et méthodes était généralement absente. Ont été exclues les communications orales non présentées sous la forme d’un abstract organisé, car il était fréquemment difficile à la lecture de l’abstract de savoir s’il s’agissait d’un travail original ou d’une lecture. Les travaux originaux présentés oralement ont été regroupés par thèmes, généralement clairement indiqués en début de séance (exemple : thorax, digestif, ostéoarticulaire, etc). Cette recherche a été effectuée au cours des mois de janvier et de février 2000.

La sélection a été effectuée en affichant le nom et le prénom du premier auteur. Si le nombre de références proposées était supérieur à 300 (laissant supposer des homonymies), on a réalisé la recherche sur le nom et le prénom du second auteur de la communication. On a alors recherché un article publié correspondant au résumé de la communication. On a vérifié qu’il existait une concordance précise entre le résumé de l’article publié et le résumé de la communication orale, et non seulement un point commun concernant le thème du travail. Par exemple, on n’a pas retenu une communication orale ayant porté sur une application précise d’un produit de contraste dans un domaine particulier, suivie d’un article publié sous la forme d’une revue générale concernant le produit de contraste en question. En revanche,
peuterey donna lungo Taux de publication des travaux originaux présentés oralement lors des journées fran
ont été retenus les articles publiés, mme s’ils traitaient d’un domaine plus restreint que celui abordé lors de la communication orale, avec l’arrière pensée que cette réduction ait pu tre proposée par les relecteurs de la revue. Pour les articles publiés, on a relevé systématiquement la revue dans laquelle l’article a été publié et l’année de publication.

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Quatre cent cinquante six travaux originaux présentés oralement ont été relevés. Trente neuf articles publiés dans les années 1997, 1998 et 1999 correspondaient à ces communications, soit un taux de publications de 8,5 %.

Parmi les 39 articles publiés, 10 l’ont été dans le journal Radiology (2,2 % des communications totales), 4 dans le journal European Radiology (0,9 % des communications totales), 4 dans le Journal de Radiologie (0,9 % des communications totales), 3 dans le journal Investigative Radiology. Les 18 autres communications ont été publiées dans d’autres journaux.

Dix sept articles ont été publiés lors de l’année 1997, 13 articles ont été publiés lors de l’année 1998, 9 articles ont été publiés lors de l’année 1999.

Le taux de publication a été significativement supérieur à la moyenne pour deux sessions, la session Recherche avec un taux de publications de 22 % (p 0,001) et la session Ostéo articulaire avec un taux de publications de 16 % (p 0,05).

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L’objectif de ce travail était d’évaluer le taux de publication, dans des revues référencées sur Medline, des travaux originaux présentés oralement aux JFR 1996. Le mode de sélection des travaux originaux présentés oralement sous forme d’un abstract organisé avait un avantage de simplicité. Par contre, il est possible que certains travaux originaux présentés sous une forme différente n’aient pas été pris en compte. Ce cas de figure est probablement relativement rare du fait des consignes de rédaction données lors de la soumission des résumés. A contrario il est possible que, dans quelques cas, des lectures présentées sous une forme d’abstract organisé et non spécifiquement signalées en tant que lectures, aient pu tre inclues dans notre recherche. Les enseignements post universitaires, les lectures, les communications affichées n’ont pas été considérés, car il est clair que si certains peuvent donner lieu à une publication écrite ayant généralement la forme d’un article didactique, d’autres, et notamment certaines communications affichées, ont une volonté didactique spécifiquement destinée à un enseignement lors d’un congrès.

Plusieurs facteurs peuvent expliquer que le pourcentage de 8,5 % soit inférieur au taux réel de publication des travaux originaux présentés oralement. Ainsi, nous avons limité notre recherche sur les trois années, 1997, 1998, 1999. Il nous a semblé inutile d’effectuer une recherche antérieure à l’année 1997 puisqu’il paraissait assez illogique de présenter une proposition de communication orale aux JFR d’un article déjà publié. La recherche sur trois années suivant la date des JFR 1996 qui correspond en fait à 3 ans et 9 mois après la soumission de l’abstract aux JFR nous a paru raisonnable. Ceci dit, on se rend compte que, mme si le taux de publications diminue nettement de 1997 à 1998 puis à 1999, il est vraisemblable qu’en recherchant sur l’année 2000, voire 2001 on aurait peut tre sélectionné quelques articles ayant suivi un parcours de publication atypique.
peuterey donna lungo Taux de publication des travaux originaux présentés oralement lors des journées fran